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GE THQL2130GFEP Ground Fault Q Line Molded Case Circuit Breaker 30 Amp 120 240
GE THQL2130GFEP Ground Fault Q Line Molded Case Circuit Breaker 30 Amp 120 240
$199.99
quality
Square D FH36030 3 Pole 600 Volt 30 Amp I Line Molded Case Circuit Breaker
Square D FH36030 3 Pole 600 Volt 30 Amp I Line Molded Case Circuit Breaker
$20.00
quality
Eaton Cutler Hammer 3 Pole Molded Case Circuit Breaker 150 Amp 250 VDC FDB3150
Eaton Cutler Hammer 3 Pole Molded Case Circuit Breaker 150 Amp 250 VDC FDB3150
$1,150.00
quality
Eaton Cutler Hammer HFD3015BP10 C Series Molded Case Circuit Breaker 15 Amp
Eaton Cutler Hammer HFD3015BP10 C Series Molded Case Circuit Breaker 15 Amp
$375.00
quality
NIB SEALED SIEMENS E2N1S ITE MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER ENCLOSURE
NIB SEALED SIEMENS E2N1S ITE MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER ENCLOSURE
$175.00
quality
Cutler Hammer MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER KDB K 3 POLE 400AMP 250 VDC
Cutler Hammer MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER KDB K 3 POLE 400AMP 250 VDC
$199.00
quality
Cutler Hammer FD3100KLD08 100 Amp 600 Vac 3 Pole Series C Molded Case Switch
Cutler Hammer FD3100KLD08 100 Amp 600 Vac 3 Pole Series C Molded Case Switch
$99.99
quality
Square D FHP36000MMT2610 FHP 100 Amp Molded Case Switch Top Lugs A FHP36000MMT
Square D FHP36000MMT2610 FHP 100 Amp Molded Case Switch Top Lugs A FHP36000MMT
$95.00
quality
SQUARE D QO260NATS 60 AMP 2 pole 240 VOLT MOLDED CASE SWITCH nib
SQUARE D QO260NATS 60 AMP 2 pole 240 VOLT MOLDED CASE SWITCH nib
$22.25
quality
Eaton Cutler Hammer MDL3800WK MDL 3P 800A Molded Case Switch M Frame
Eaton Cutler Hammer MDL3800WK MDL 3P 800A Molded Case Switch M Frame
$899.00
quality
Eaton Cutler Hammer HFD3040 C Series Molded Case Circuit Breaker 40 Amp
Eaton Cutler Hammer HFD3040 C Series Molded Case Circuit Breaker 40 Amp
$195.00
quality
ABB MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER T1N030TLAS8 NIB PZB
ABB MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER T1N030TLAS8 NIB PZB
$355.57
quality
Westinghouse FDB3150 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 150 A 3 Pole 600 Vac 250 VDC
Westinghouse FDB3150 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 150 A 3 Pole 600 Vac 250 VDC
$357.00
quality
EATON HFD3025 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 25 Amps 600 Vac 3 Pole
EATON HFD3025 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 25 Amps 600 Vac 3 Pole
$246.00
quality
Cutler Hammer FD3100 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 100 Amp 600 VAC 3 pole
Cutler Hammer FD3100 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 100 Amp 600 VAC 3 pole
$216.00
quality
Eaton FD3080 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 80 Amps 3 poles 600 Vac 250 VDC
Eaton FD3080 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 80 Amps 3 poles 600 Vac 250 VDC
$216.00
quality
Eaton EHD3060BP10 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 60 Amp 480 VAC 3 pole
Eaton EHD3060BP10 Molded Case Circuit Breakers 60 Amp 480 VAC 3 pole
$167.40
quality
Eaton EHD3080 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 80 Amps 3 poles 480 Vac 250 VDC
Eaton EHD3080 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 80 Amps 3 poles 480 Vac 250 VDC
$143.70
quality
Eaton EHD3090 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 90 Amps 3 poles 480 Vac 250 VDC
Eaton EHD3090 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 90 Amps 3 poles 480 Vac 250 VDC
$130.80
quality
WESTINGHOUSE KD3400K 400 AMP MOLDED CASE SWITCH 3 POLE 30 DAY WARRANTY
WESTINGHOUSE KD3400K 400 AMP MOLDED CASE SWITCH 3 POLE 30 DAY WARRANTY
$237.06
quality
TEY340 General Electric GE Molded Case Circuit Breaker  NEW
TEY340 General Electric GE Molded Case Circuit Breaker NEW
$70.00
quality
Westinghouse Series C Molded Case Switch JDB3250KXD03 250 AMP 3 POLE 600VAC
Westinghouse Series C Molded Case Switch JDB3250KXD03 250 AMP 3 POLE 600VAC
$129.99
quality
Eaton HFD1020 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 20 Amps 1 pole 277 Volt
Eaton HFD1020 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 20 Amps 1 pole 277 Volt
$83.70
quality
Eaton FD1020 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 20 Amps 1 pole 277 Volt
Eaton FD1020 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 20 Amps 1 pole 277 Volt
$70.20
quality
Square D 100amp Molded Case I Line Circuit Breaker FA22100AB 30 day warranty
Square D 100amp Molded Case I Line Circuit Breaker FA22100AB 30 day warranty
$97.78
quality
CHALLENGER CFS3150 MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER 150 AMP 600 VAC 3 POLE
CHALLENGER CFS3150 MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER 150 AMP 600 VAC 3 POLE
$145.75
quality
SQUARE D MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER Q2H22150AC 240 VOLTS 2 POLE 150 AMP
SQUARE D MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER Q2H22150AC 240 VOLTS 2 POLE 150 AMP
$159.00
quality
 Square D 1000A Molded Case Switch w Undervoltage  Aux Cat MAL360001287 U 12
Square D 1000A Molded Case Switch w Undervoltage Aux Cat MAL360001287 U 12
$1,195.00
quality
ABB SACE S3 S3N 3 Pole 600 Volt Molded Case Breaker MCCB
ABB SACE S3 S3N 3 Pole 600 Volt Molded Case Breaker MCCB
$149.99
quality
Square D 60amp Molded Case I Line Circuit Breaker FA32060 30 day warranty
Square D 60amp Molded Case I Line Circuit Breaker FA32060 30 day warranty
$62.22
quality
Siemens Molded Case Circuit Breaker LGB2B030B High Interrupting Capacity New
Siemens Molded Case Circuit Breaker LGB2B030B High Interrupting Capacity New
$150.00
quality
 SQUARE D 400 AMP 3 POLE MOLDED CASE SWITCH CAT No LHL36000M1287  VF 13A
SQUARE D 400 AMP 3 POLE MOLDED CASE SWITCH CAT No LHL36000M1287 VF 13A
$375.00
quality
BR230 30 Amp 2 Pole 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Square D
BR230 30 Amp 2 Pole 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Square D
$4.25
quality
GE Breaker TJK426Y400 2P 400A 600V MOLDED CASE SWITCH
GE Breaker TJK426Y400 2P 400A 600V MOLDED CASE SWITCH
$375.00
quality
MP120 20 Amp1 Pole 120 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Murray
MP120 20 Amp1 Pole 120 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Murray
$11.30
quality
Merlin Gerin Compact NSJ600A 600A 3P 600V Molded Case Switch w Adapter
Merlin Gerin Compact NSJ600A 600A 3P 600V Molded Case Switch w Adapter
$575.00
quality
Square D Molded Case Breaker 400 Amp LHL3600
Square D Molded Case Breaker 400 Amp LHL3600
$150.00
quality
NEW EATON KD2400FS 2P 400A AMP 600V AC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER D563390
NEW EATON KD2400FS 2P 400A AMP 600V AC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER D563390
$616.10
quality
Schneider Electric JDL36175 Square D Circuit Breaker Molded Case 175A 3 Pole NEW
Schneider Electric JDL36175 Square D Circuit Breaker Molded Case 175A 3 Pole NEW
$950.00
quality
Q130 30 Amp 1 Pole 120 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q130 30 Amp 1 Pole 120 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$2.55
quality
Q120 20 Amp 1 Pole 120 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q120 20 Amp 1 Pole 120 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$8.63
quality
Square D KAL26150 KAL 26150 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 150A 600V USED
Square D KAL26150 KAL 26150 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 150A 600V USED
$199.99
quality
Q230 30 Amp 2 Pole 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q230 30 Amp 2 Pole 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$5.95
quality
Q240 40 Amp 2 Pole 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q240 40 Amp 2 Pole 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$5.95
quality
LDB3600K Cutler Hammer Molded Case Circuit Breaker 3 Pole 600 Amp 600V
LDB3600K Cutler Hammer Molded Case Circuit Breaker 3 Pole 600 Amp 600V
$1,750.00
quality
Q2020 20 Amp Twin 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q2020 20 Amp Twin 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$13.00
quality
Square D MHP 3 pole 600 amp 600v MHP360006MMT Molded Case Breaker no lug cover
Square D MHP 3 pole 600 amp 600v MHP360006MMT Molded Case Breaker no lug cover
$950.00
quality
Q1520 20 Amp Twin 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q1520 20 Amp Twin 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$41.65
quality
Q1520 20 Amp Twin 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
Q1520 20 Amp Twin 120 240 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker Siemens
$10.33
quality
Siemens BQD260 Molded case Circuit Breaker NIB FREESHIP W BIN
Siemens BQD260 Molded case Circuit Breaker NIB FREESHIP W BIN
$45.00
quality
NEW SQUARE D FAL36015 15A AMP 3P 600V AC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER D586095
NEW SQUARE D FAL36015 15A AMP 3P 600V AC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER D586095
$95.05
quality
ge ted113015 molded case thermal magnetic circuit breaker 15 amp 1 pole
ge ted113015 molded case thermal magnetic circuit breaker 15 amp 1 pole
$12.99
quality
GENERAL ELECTRIC TEY250 50A 2Pole 480 Volt Molded Case
GENERAL ELECTRIC TEY250 50A 2Pole 480 Volt Molded Case
$50.00
quality
ge te 11020 molded case thermal magnetic circuit breaker 20 amp 1 pole
ge te 11020 molded case thermal magnetic circuit breaker 20 amp 1 pole
$14.99
quality
INDUSTRIAL SCIENTIFIC 17027111 Case12X9X4 Blk Molded Plastic G1282060
INDUSTRIAL SCIENTIFIC 17027111 Case12X9X4 Blk Molded Plastic G1282060
$48.29
quality
Cutler Hammer BR240 Eaton Molded Case Circuit Breaker 2 pole 40 amp 120 Volt
Cutler Hammer BR240 Eaton Molded Case Circuit Breaker 2 pole 40 amp 120 Volt
$20.99
quality
TQD32200 General Electric Molded Case Thermal Magnetic Circuit Breaker
TQD32200 General Electric Molded Case Thermal Magnetic Circuit Breaker
$90.00
quality
MO 1082 SQUARE D MAL36600 MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER SERIES 2 600 AMP
MO 1082 SQUARE D MAL36600 MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER SERIES 2 600 AMP
$250.00
quality
Square D GJL36040 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 600V 40A 3 P
Square D GJL36040 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 600V 40A 3 P
$449.99
quality
NEW Siemens ED41B020 I T E Molded Case Circuit Breaker Box of 3 ea
NEW Siemens ED41B020 I T E Molded Case Circuit Breaker Box of 3 ea
$169.95
quality
NEW Square D FAL24015 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 480V 15A 2 P
NEW Square D FAL24015 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 480V 15A 2 P
$499.99
quality
GE FGP3A250 200KA 480V 250 AMP MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER
GE FGP3A250 200KA 480V 250 AMP MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER
$150.00
quality
FD1020 Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
FD1020 Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
$74.99
quality
SQUARE D M LAL3615010  150 Amp 3 Pole 600 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker
SQUARE D M LAL3615010 150 Amp 3 Pole 600 Volt Molded Case Circuit Breaker
$800.00
quality
Fuji Electric SA603R 500A 600V Molded Case Auto Circuit Breaker
Fuji Electric SA603R 500A 600V Molded Case Auto Circuit Breaker
$425.00
quality
Westinghouse NC31200WK 600 VAC 1200 Amp 3 Pole Molded Case Switch Cutler Hammer
Westinghouse NC31200WK 600 VAC 1200 Amp 3 Pole Molded Case Switch Cutler Hammer
$549.99
quality
KDC3400F Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
KDC3400F Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
$1,812.38
quality
GE TEB122080 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 80Amps 2 Pole 240VAC 250VDC NIB
GE TEB122080 Molded Case Circuit Breaker 80Amps 2 Pole 240VAC 250VDC NIB
$185.00
quality
GE TED134100 3P 100A 480VAC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER LOAD TESTED OUT OF BOX
GE TED134100 3P 100A 480VAC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER LOAD TESTED OUT OF BOX
$45.00
quality
Square D 200A 3Pole KA36200 Molded Case Circuit Breaker
Square D 200A 3Pole KA36200 Molded Case Circuit Breaker
$500.00
quality
EATON LGE3300FAGA1 SERIES G LG FRAME GLOBAL MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERBF2
EATON LGE3300FAGA1 SERIES G LG FRAME GLOBAL MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERBF2
$850.00
quality
10 Pcs Molded Plastic Case 1000V 10A Rectifier Diodes 10A10
10 Pcs Molded Plastic Case 1000V 10A Rectifier Diodes 10A10
$4.79
quality
QO260NATS SQUARE D MOLDED CASE SWITCH 120WR0003141
QO260NATS SQUARE D MOLDED CASE SWITCH 120WR0003141
$11.51
quality
NEW Merlin Gerin NFNL36150AABDMA Thermal Magnetic Molded Case Circuit Breaker
NEW Merlin Gerin NFNL36150AABDMA Thermal Magnetic Molded Case Circuit Breaker
$594.99
quality
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45031 Case Case Molded Plastic 400 Case G1511539
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45031 Case Case Molded Plastic 400 Case G1511539
$107.00
quality
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45030 Case Case Molded Plastic401 405 Case G1511520
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45030 Case Case Molded Plastic401 405 Case G1511520
$104.19
quality
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45028 Case Ul Case Molded Plastic 260 Case G1511505
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45028 Case Ul Case Molded Plastic 260 Case G1511505
$88.53
quality
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45029 Case Case Molded Plastic 444 Series G1511511
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45029 Case Case Molded Plastic 444 Series G1511511
$87.95
quality
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45021 Case Case Molded 897 Sms 2 Case G1511225
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45021 Case Case Molded 897 Sms 2 Case G1511225
$100.20
quality
Challenger 25A Amp Circit Breaker 2 Pole Cutler Hammer 14K Molded Case
Challenger 25A Amp Circit Breaker 2 Pole Cutler Hammer 14K Molded Case
$75.00
quality
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45022 Case Case Molded 884 2 886 2 899 G1511231
SIMPSON ELECTRIC 45022 Case Case Molded 884 2 886 2 899 G1511231
$94.43
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SQUARE D FAL22060 MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER 60A W 9422RN1 OPERATING MECHANISM
SQUARE D FAL22060 MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER 60A W 9422RN1 OPERATING MECHANISM
$95.00
quality
ABB T5N400BW 4 Circuit Breaker Molded Case 4 Pole 400A 600V
ABB T5N400BW 4 Circuit Breaker Molded Case 4 Pole 400A 600V
$1,100.00
quality
TEY330 GE 3 Pole 40 Amp Molded Case Circuit Breaker
TEY330 GE 3 Pole 40 Amp Molded Case Circuit Breaker
$100.00
quality
NEW WESTINGHOUSE HFB2030 2P 30A AMP 6000V AC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER D563306
NEW WESTINGHOUSE HFB2030 2P 30A AMP 6000V AC MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER D563306
$112.50
quality
EHD3040L Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
EHD3040L Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
$202.12
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JD3175 Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
JD3175 Eaton Cutler Hammer Westinghouse Molded Case NEW
$929.96
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Molded Case

Molded+Case

WASTE MANAGEMENT- ALMITRA H. PATEL vs UNION OF INDIA (A CASE STUDY)

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} INTRODUCTION   In this project I have researched on a very leading case Almitra H.Patel v. Union of India, which relates to legal aspects of Waste Management inour country. The world is facing pollution problem which is going to have a globaleffect. Waste management of solid and liquid wastes, and the ever-growing airpollution, all these three develop due to industrialisation, urbanisation andglobalisation. It's critical to adopt a broad approach in developing a workingframework for waste management. This covers the social, economic, technological,political and administrative dimensions. For example, the social dimension ofwaste management involves waste minimisation; the economic dimension involveswaste recycling; the technology dimension, waste disposal; and the politicaland administrative dimensions cut across all the three issues of minimisation,recycling and disposal. This study shows how important is waste management,through a case study of Almitra H. Patel v .Union of India, a leading case in environmental protection. It is a shocking fact that noneof the industries that recycle hazardous waste had any facility for safedisposal of such waste in an environmentally sound manner. Most of the environmental cases,in general, are dealt through the PIL (Public InterestLitigation), and this case was also filed by Almitra H. Patel through a PIL.PIL has made others aware about the magnitude of the problem and that it maytake a serious turn if not checked immediately. The, concern of this case studyis to mention how the wastes are harmful for us if proper care for theirdisposal is not taken. The problem of waste management occurs mostly fromurbanised cities starting from household activities. The Indian Courts, Supreme aswell as High Courts, have given new dimensions to the chapter on fundamentalrights in the Constitution in general and Article 21 in particular, in favourof the people and the environment. Article 21 of our Constitution says that noperson's life can be taken away without procedure established by law. The word"life" was extended to “livelihood”, and thereafter it was extendedto rights of prisoners, pollution-free environment, safe drinking water,shelter, privacy, and the right to health etc. The expansion of Article 21enthused the public interest groups approaching the High Courts and the SupremeCourt to seek enforcement of right to have clean and safe environment againstthe polluting industries, against irreversible damage to the environment andinaction/non-action of the Government. This development has taken place withina decade, in particular, the last few years have shown the courts’ activism atits peak concerning environment. The Supreme Court has made obligations of theState to provide safe and clean environment under the Directive Principles alsoenforceable. It is not that our Indian government does not take any action ormake any law related to environment. The law in our country regarding to theenvironment has been enacted since 1927 which is Indian Forest Act, and afterthis a lot of laws were passed and enacted, but the fact is that till whatextent the countrymen follow that. And if these laws regarding environment isnot followed in spirit, it will haunt us ever.   Sources of Environmental law Theinterdependence of environmental law with other disciplines makes it a distinctbranch of law. The law relating to environment is derived from two principlesources, namely, Common law developed by courts through judicial precedents,and the statute law comprising regulations or bye laws. It is said thatenvironmental law is an amalgam of common law and statutory principles.   Almitra H. Patel v. Union ofIndia 2000(2) SCC 166 Appellants: Almitra H. Patel and Anr. Vs. Respondent : Union of India (UOI) andOrs. Hon'bleJudges: J.S.Verma, C.J., B.N. Kirpal and V.N. Khare, JJ. Subject: Environment                   Facts ofthe case: This casewas filed by Almitra H. Patel against Union of India, taking into account thepoor status of Delhi. Historic city Delhi the capital of India is one ofthe most polluted cities in the world. The authorities, responsible forpollution control and environment protection, have not been able to provideclean and healthy environment to the residents of Delhi. The ambient air is somuch polluted that it is difficult to breathe. More and more Delhities aresuffering from respiratory diseases and throat infections. River Yamuna themain source of drinking water supply is the free dumping place for untreatedsewage and industrial waste. Apart from air and water pollution, the city isvirtually an open dustbin. Garbage strewn all over Delhi is a common sight. TheDelhi municipal authority was not taking proper attention to solve the problemof hazardous waste management. This all the condition forced Almitra H. Patelto sue a case against the municipal authority of Delhi. The public of Delhi wassuffering with many diseases like respiratory, skin diseases. All the wastescoming out from the industries were emerged into river Yamuna which was the sourceof drinking water for Delhi, and these wastes affected because the Delhimunicipal authority didn’t take the proper care to manage those wastes.   Issues involved in this case: 1: Was MunicipalCorporation of Delhi responsible for the disorder in the management of thewastes which affected the people of Delhi? 2: Was there lack of safai karamcharis in MCD? 3: Was there needfor the recommendation of the Committee, and who will be the officersresponsible for implementing those recommendations which are accepted?                                 JUDGMENT:(as ordered by the court) 1. We have heard learned AdditionalSolicitor General and Shri Vellapalli, learned Senior Counsel. We consider itappropriate at this stage to constitute a Committee and to specify the specificaspects which the Committee is required to examine. 2. The Committee for Class I Cities(population over one lakh) shall consist of the following: 1)       Mr. Asim Burman, (Commissioner,Chairman Calcutta Municipal Corpn.) 2)       Mr. S. R. Rao, (Secretary, SSI,Member Govt. of Gujarat & ex-Commr Surat) 3) Mr. S. K. Chawla, Chief MemberEngineer, CPWD 4) Mr. P. U. Asnani, (Urban Env. MemberInfrastructure Rep. for India USAID and Consultant, Ahmadabad Mun. Corpn.) 5) Dr. Saroj, (Jt. Director,Member Ministry of Environment & Forests) 6) Mr. Rajat Bhargava,(Commissioner, Member Vijayawada Mun. Corpn.) 7) Mr. Yogendra Tripathi, (Dy.Secy. Member Secretary Urban Dev. MOUA & E) 8) Mrs. Almitra Patel, (Convenor,Member INTACH Waste Network) 3. The terms of Reference for theCommittee shall be as under: To look into all aspects of urbansolid waste management, particularly- 1)       Examine the existing practicesand to suggest hygienic processing and waste disposal practices and proventechnologies on the basis of economic feasibility and safety which theCorporations/Government may directly or indirectly adopt or sponsor. 2)       Examine and suggest ways toimprove conditions in the formal and informal sector for promoting eco-friendlysorting, collection, transportation, disposal, recycling and reuse. 3)       To review municipal bye-laws andthe powers of local bodies and regional planning authorities and suggestnecessary modifications to ensure effective budgeting, financing,administration, monitoring and compliance. 4)       Examine and formulate standardsand regulations for management of urban solid waste, and set time-frames withinwhich the authorities shall be bound to implement the same as directed. 4. The Committee is requested togive its report as early as possible .The Committee is also requested to givesuch interim reports as it may find convenient to do so. 5. The secretarial assistance atDelhi will be provided by the Ministry of Urban Development which will alsomake all other arrangements required by the Committee for its properfunctioning while arrangements within the States/Union Territories would bemade by the State/Union Territory concerned. Expenses incurred for the purposeto the same extent would be borne at this stage by the Ministry of UrbanDevelopment and the State Governments/Union Territories concerned. The finalresponsibility for meeting these expenses would be decided later on. 6. The local authorities and StateGovernments/Union Territories concerned shall extend all cooperation andassistance to the Committee for its proper functioning.   Explanation: In the above judgments the court had decided, therewill be a committee constituted. The court also mentioned the task and therules to be followed by the committee to maintain the pollution caused by thehazardous wastes, and also mentioned that the committee should examine thesituation. The court also appointed some officers according to theirperformance in the respective services they were involved. The court made acommittee for Class I cities & the designations for the committee as mentionedabove in the judgment. The work of the committee was to examine the situationand suggest solutions according to the status of the wastes. The courts focused on the three steps reduce, reuse and recycle, andalso said the committee to promote eco-friendly situations. The court asked thecommittee to submit the report as early as possible.   ReferenceCase:   BangaloreMedical Trust   v.   B. S Muddappa AIR 1991 SC 1902 (Summary of the case) A land designated under the urban planning scheme,for a public park was leased by the state government for a nursing home. TheGovernment justifying its act, by stating that the locality did not have anursing home and it was in public interest that the said lease was given. Thesame lease was challenged in this petition. The Court observed that Public Park as a placereserved for beauty and recreation was developed in 19 th and 20 th century and is associated with growth of the concept of equality andrecognition of importance of common man. Earlier it was a prerogative of thearistocracy and the affluent either as a result of royal grant or as a placereserved for private pleasure. Free and healthy air in beautiful surroundingswas privilege of few. But now it is a 'gift from people to themselves'. Itsimportance has multiplied with emphasis on environment and pollution. In modernplanning and development it occupies an important place in social ecology. Aprivate nursing home on the other hand is essentially a commercial venture, aprofit oriented industry. Service may be its motto, but earning is theobjective. Its utility may not be undermined but a park is a necessity not amere amenity. A private nursing home cannot be a substitute for a public park. In 1984, the Bangalore Development Authority Act (1976)itself provided for reservation of not less than 15% of the total area of thelayout in a development scheme for public park and playgrounds the sale anddisposition of which is prohibited under Sec. 38-A of Bangalore DevelopmentAuthority Act (1976). Further, the Court stated that absence of openspace and Public Park, in present day when urbanisation is on increase, ruralexodus is on large scale and congested areas are coming up rapidly, may giverise to health hazard. To say, therefore, that by conversion of a site reservedfor low lying park into a private nursing home social welfare was beingpromoted was being oblivious of true character of the two and their utility.   ILLEGAL QUANTITY OF WASTES It is difficult to assess howmuch quantity of wastes has come to our country illegally and surreptitiously.We know only the figures which have been collected by the High PoweredCommittee under the chairmanship of Dr. M.G. K. Menon for the year 1996-97 and1997-98. Most of these hazardous wastes has come after the ban imposed by theDelhi High Court and the Supreme Court. The quantum of hazardous wastes lyingat the docks/ports/ICDS for the above mentioned period is as follows:-   Waste Category   Zinc Ash Lead Ash Lead Batteries Waste Oil   Nickel Hydroxide Waste Imported in 1996-97   21976 MT   5020 MT 32561 MT   3517 MT       86 MT Waste Imported in 1997-98 9740 MT 2444 MT 7167 MT 7610 MT  1054MT The quantum of hazardous wastewhich has come to our country in spite of the ban imposed by the Courts clearlyshows-that there is something which is inherently lacking in the law withregard to the regulation and control of hazardous waste and that there is noimplementation of. the existing laws. As already mentioned above, in thepresent case the implementing authorities were totally unaware of the hazardouswaste being imported into the country, not to speak of iii proper managementand disposal in an environmentally safe manner. The State, in law, is not onlybound to implement the conditions imposed in the Basel Convention but is alsounder an obligation to implement   theamendments, if any, which are made periodically in this convention This is alsomade clear by the Supreme Court in one of its directions The State owesindependently a duty not only to protect the environment but also to find outsuch alternatives which are environmental friendly and which reduce andgradually take away the threat arising out of the effects of toxicity in theenvironment. The High Powered Committee headed by Dr. Menon is supposed to lookinto the availability of various environmentally safe alternatives, and tosuggest a list of other hazardous substances which are required to be banned orregulated over and above the list of the Basel Convention. The Supreme Courthas recently expanded the "public trust doctrine" holding that Stateis the trustee of natural resources which are by nature meant for public useand enjoyment. The State is also the trustee and is also under a legal duty toprotect the natural resources. Anybody disturbing the environing' balance andthereby causing damage to the ecology has to be made liable and should bepenalized for the same. It is described as "PolluterPays Principle” vides, Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum vs. UOI andthe Indian Council for EnvironmentalLegal Action vs. UOI . Those industries which are responsible for damageto the ecology are liable to pay not only to the individual sufferers but alsoto pay for restoring the damage done to the ecology. The Hazardous Waste (Managementand Handling) Rules, 1989 have to be brought in consonance with the BaselConvention; over and above, the Rules have to be framed by keeping in mind thealready alarming pollution level in our country, plugging the loop-holes whicherring industries take resort to. It has to be ensured that any hazardous wastewhich is ultimately permitted for import must contain all the particulars ofvarious components certified by the exporting country and the importing countryshould verify those particulars at the dock itself There should be laboratoryfacilities to check whether the informally provided on the container and in thecertificate are true and correct, if the information is found incorrect thenexporting country should be put under an obligation to take it back and pay thepenalty for sending such wastes. The laboratory facilities should havesophisticated equipment and experts. The necessary amendments in this regardshould be done in the Customs Act as well as various other laws dealingvii& the import. The industry which has imported such hazardous waste mug hasrequisite permission and the facility for safe disposal as a pre-requisitecondition. The lifting of hazardous waste from the docks/ICDS etc. should bedone in a environmentally safe manner. There should be proper record to showthat the hazardous waste has reached the industry   safely and that it was recycled in thatindustry alone and was not given | to any other traders outside. A report withregard to each consigning should remain with such industry and also with theState as well as Central Pollution Control Board. Such reports should also beavailable to the NGOs who have been working in this field. It should be seen bythe authorities that the disposal sites are maintained by the industry properlyin accordance "with the guidelines set up by the State. In case of anythreat to environment immediate steps should be taken by the concernedauthorities. The concerned NGOs should be provided and information with regardto the particulars of each industry, the hazards waste which they arereceiving, recycling and the waste which is dump in the disposal sites. Thiswill permit these NGOs to have a check' pollution level and they will be able togive warning signals to the Government as well as to the people. At this hour when the ecology isunder severe threat from rising pollution, our bio-diversity and indigenousknowledge is being Pirated our food security is in peril and our sovereignty isunder serious attention we must resist all attempts which tend to affect thelives of our people to have fresh air to breathe, to have soil free frompollution, to have safe drinking water and the flora and fauna; without whichthe life itself becomes a meaningless existence. Responsibility of the occupier forhandling of wastes (1) The occupier generating hazardouswastes listed in column (2) of the Schedule in quantities equal to or exceedingthe limits given in column (3) of the said Schedule, shall take all practicalsteps to ensure that such wastes are properly handled and disposed of withoutany adverse effects which may result from such wastes and the occupier shallalso be responsible for proper collection, reception, treatment, storage anddisposal of these wastes either himself or through the operator of a facility. (2) The occupier or any other personacting on his behalf who intends to get his hazardous waste treated by theoperator of a facility under sub-rule (1), shall give to the operator of afacility, such information as may be specified by the State Pollution ControlBoard.   REQUIREMENT FOR LEGAL FRAMEWORK The need for the legislative guidelines is thatthere must be a permanent policy as to landfill management. Even though thesupreme Court expressed the view that landfill as solid waste disposal as notthe permanent solution and suggesting compost plants as alternative method ofsolid waste management, it realised that atleast for next twenty years landfill will be the common practice for solid waste disposal. Further, the AlmitraPatel's case has shown the diverse ramifications including labour law disputesand the dispute between two statutory entities. The Supreme Court had to relyon general provisions of the Constitution of India like Fundamental Rights andDirective Principles of the State Policy to formulate the principles apart fromequally general provisions in Municipality Legislations like the construction,maintenance and cleansing of drains and drainage works and of public latrines, urinalsand similar conveniences.   MUNICIPALITIES AS CONSTITUTIONAL INSTITUTION Constitutional Amendment Municipalities werelegislative creatures with conferred powers. Part IX-A of the constitution ofIndia deals with the municipalities. The municipality is an institution ofself-government. Apart from providing for the election, finance, taxation andfunds, the part also provides for powers, authority and responsibilities of themunicipality. The provision speaks about the devolution of the responsibilitiesupon the municipalities with respect to the preparation of plan for economicdevelopment and social justice and performance of functions and theimplementation of schemes as may be entrusted including those in relation tothe matters listed in the 12 th schedule. The 12 th schedulein constitution of India enumerates important functions of urban administrationincluding urban & town planning, public health, sanitation conservancy andsolid waste management. Further the constitution also provides a committee fordistrict planning to consolidate the plans prepared by the panchayats and themunicipalities in the district and prepare a draft development plan for thedistrict as whole. It specifically contemplates that the draft development planshall have regard to apart from other matters environmental conservation.Similarly, provision for metropolitan planning committee is also provided. Thusthe constitution true to its character has made elaborate provisions empoweringthe municipalities with regard to solid waste management. However at thestatutory level there has not been any initiative to provide for legalframework. The existing rules are either framed by the court or guidelinesformulated from the judiciary.   CONCLUSION After going through the research here I come to aconclusion that how the environment is important for human life as it isdescribed in this case Almitra H. Patel vs. UOI. This case was a leading casefor the management and handling the hazardous wastes on the order of the court.After this case the court brought a very strict action against those who paidcarelessness in the Delhi Municipal Corporation. After this case the rule whichcame out as a strict work for the municipal corporations of metropolitan citiesthat helped a lot to the people of urban cities. Due to this case themanagement of hazardous wastes has been improved. In the order of this case amost important was that, the officers of the corporation have to submit thereport as early as possible and if they don’t do so then strict action will betaken against them. I thank Almitra H. Patel to contr

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